By Ari Lampinen, CBG100 Suomi, November 2015
Updated in January 2017
The selection process was conducted by Technology for Life, a Finnish association of engineers, scientists and experts of interdisciplinary science and technology studies specialized in responsible utilization of technology. Results of the selection process were released in November 2015. Selection process is described below.
Environmental criteria of participation
Car models were eligible candidates in the selection process by fulfilling the following 3 environmental requirements regarding crude oil independency and environmental quality of primary and secondary energy:
- Primary energy: must be able to use solar or wind energy based secondary energy form, which is available in public stations in EU and/or Nordic countries.
- Secondary energy: must be able to use clean secondary energy forms, i.e. electricity, hydrogen or methane (as defined by the EU Directive 2014/94/EU on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure) in pure (100 %) form.
- Crude oil independency: must be crude oil independent, i.e. able to drive without crude oil based fuels (but may also have ability to use crude oil based fuels).
As a result of these environmental requirements, all candidates
- are AFV cars with ability to 100 % use of alternative secondary energy forms,
- are able to use 100 % renewable electricity, hydrogen or methane in pure form,
- are able to reach CO2 emission level 0 gCO2/km, and
- are able to reach lifecycle greenhouse gas emission level 0 gCO2eq/km.
Selections were made of 46 car models representing 17 car brands and all 9 car segments. All are new factory produced M1 (or M1G) class vehicles according to the EU vehicle classification and have been available during 2015 in the Finnish market imported by official brand representatives, i.e. models imported by independent car dealers were not included. They were evaluated in four categories:
- Small cars (7): segments A (mini) and B (small)
- Medium cars (14): segment C (medium)
- Large cars (15): segments D (large), E (executive) and M (multi purpose)
- Other cars (10): segments F (luxury), J (SUV) and S (sport)
Candidates represent 5 different technologies:
|AFV type||Technology||Description||Energy flexibility||Models|
|PEV||BEV (electricity)||electric car||Dedicated||10|
|PHEV (electricity/gasoline)||gasoline plug-in-hybrid car||Flexible||16|
|PHEV (electricity/diesel oil)||diesel plug-in-hybrid car||Flexible||1|
|H2V||FCEV (GH2)||hydrogen fuel cell car (monofuel)||Dedicated||1|
|MGV||Bifuel (CMG/gasoline)||methane car (bifuel)||Flexible||18|
Of the 46 candidates 11 are dedicated AFVs (BEV and H2V) and 35 are flexible AFVs also able to use either gasoline or diesel oil (PHEV and MGV).
Candidates represent 17 brands:
|Volkswagen||11||A, C, D, M||BEV, MGV, gasoline-PHEV|
|Mercedes-Benz||8||D, E, F, M, J||gasoline-PHEV, BEV, MGV|
|Opel||3||C, M||gasoline-PHEV, MGV|
|Porsche||3||F, J, S||gasoline-PHEV|
|Volvo||2||D, J||diesel-PHEV, gasoline-PHEV|
|BMW||2||B, J||BEV, gasoline-PHEV|
Candidates were evaluated using metrics developed for this purpose. Each car was classified by 9 environmental, 2 economic and 2 practicality properties.
|Consumption of natural resources as material||Lifecycle environmental burden of car|
|Consumption of natural resources as energy||Lifecycle environmental burden of car|
|Crude oil consumption||Lifecycle environmental burden of energy|
|Coal and peat consumption||Lifecycle environmental burden of energy|
|Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions||Lifecycle environmental burden of energy|
|CO2 emissions||Environmental burden of use|
|Pollutant emissions||Environmental burden of use|
|Overall sustainability||Sustainable development|
|Sustainable range||Sustainable development|
|Cost of use||Economy|
For each property 0-10 points were given. Therefore, scale of total score was 0-130 and scale of environmental score was 0-90. Of the 46 car models evaluated actual total score range was 21-108 and environmental score range was 13-78.
In the four categories cars were arranged in order based on their environmental score. In cases where environmental scores were equal, the order was based on total score. The first placed cars were selected Green Car of the Year in their category.
|Category||Candidates||Green Car of the Year||Environmental score||Total score|
|1: Small cars||7||Seat Mii Ecofuel||77||106|
|2: Medium cars||14||Škoda Octavia G-Tec||74||103|
|3: Large cars||15||VW Caddy Maxi TGI||78||108|
|4: Other cars||10||Tesla Model S||56||77|
The overall Green Car of the Year was chosen from the first placed cars by vote of experts utilizing multicriteria analysis. In addition to scores, other issues were taken into account. Here the multicriteria analysis was necessary because the scores of Seat Mii Ecofuel and VW Caddy Maxi TGI were almost equal and these cars are very different in most aspects. Both of them have a lot of merits, but in separate areas. Therefore, their environmental and total scores can not be considered conclusive to define order between them as the overall best green car. Seat Mii Ecofuel was chosen as the overall Green Car of the Year, because it fits exceptionally well to the traditional green car image, including small size, low natural resource consumption, lack of luxury features and low price.
Although no other awards were given, scores also allow to acknowledge best cars in technology groups and segments. In this case order was based on total score and environmental score was taken into account only, if more than one car model had the same total score.
|Technology||Candidates||Best car||Total score||Environmental score|
|Diesel-PHEV||1||Volvo V60 PHEV||59||40|
|H2V||1||Hyundai ix35 Fuel Cell||71||54|
|MGV||18||VW Caddy Maxi TGI||108||78|
|Segment||Candidates||Best car(s)||Total score|
|A: mini||6||Seat Mii Ecofuel, Škoda Citigo G-Tec and VW Eco-up!||106|
|B: small||1||BMW i3||91|
|C: medium||14||Škoda Octavia G-Tec and Škoda Octavia Combi G-Tec||103|
|D: large||5||VW Passat GTE and VW Passat Variant GTE||73|
|E: executive||1||MB E200 NGD||93|
|F: luxury||3||Tesla Model S||77|
|M: multi purpose||9||VW Caddy Maxi TGI||108|
|J: SUV||6||Hyundai ix35 Fuel Cell||71|
|S: sport||1||Porsche 918 Spyder||21|
Each car model was given environmental classification based on their environmental scores. This is independent from the evaluation described above and does not affect placings and nominations. Environmental classification is indicated by 0-5 suns. Usually star symbol is used in classifications, but here sun symbol is applied instead, because ability to consume solar energy is one of the requirements of participation. In addition to sun classification, a verbal classification was given:
- Super Eco Car: 4-5 suns
- Eco Car: 3 suns
- Environmentally Enhanced Car (EEV): 1-2 suns
- Other car: 0 sun
For 5 suns, globally the best available technology was required. None of the 46 car models achieved it, since the Finnish market is not mature enough to allow the environmentally best cars to compete. Therefore, they are not imported for sale in Finland by official brand representatives.
Majority of candidates, 27 car models, achieved 4 sun classification. These cars make it easy for their owners to achieve especially low environmental burdens. They enable in practise transition to sustainable 100 % renewable energy consumption in transportation energy use in Finland. They are listed below in alphabetical order.
|Super Eco Car||Seats||Body style||Technology||Segment||Category|
|Audi A3 g-tron||5||Wagon||MGV||C||2|
|Ford Focus Electric||5||Hatchback||BEV||C||2|
|Mercedes-Benz B200 NGD||5||Multi-purpose||MGV||M||3|
|Mercedes-Benz E200 NGD||5||Sedan||MGV||E||3|
|Mercedes-Benz Sprinter 316 NGT||9||Minibus||MGV||M||3|
|Opel Combo Tour CNG||7||Multi-purpose||MGV||M||3|
|Opel Zafira Tourer XNT||7||Multi-purpose||MGV||M||3|
|Seat Leon G-Tec||5||Hatchback||MGV||C||2|
|Seat Leon ST G-Tec||5||Wagon||MGV||C||2|
|Seat Mii Ecofuel||4||Hatchback||MGV||A||1|
|Škoda Citigo G-Tec||4||Hatchback||MGV||A||1|
|Škoda Octavia G-Tec||5||Sedan||MGV||C||2|
|Škoda Octavia Combi G-Tec||5||Wagon||MGV||C||2|
|Volkswagen Caddy TGI||7||Multi-purpose||MGV||M||3|
|Volkswagen Caddy Maxi TGI||7||Multi-purpose||MGV||M||3|
|Volkswagen Golf TGI||5||Hatchback||MGV||C||2|
|Volkswagen Golf Variant TGI||5||Wagon||MGV||C||2|
|Volkswagen Touran TGI||7||Multi-purpose||MGV||M||3|
Only 3 car models achieved 3 sun classification. These cars have good environmental merits but for various reasons it is not easy for their owners to use them with low environmental burdens. They are listed below in alphabetical order.
|Eco Car||Seats||Body style||Technology||Segment||Category|
|Hyundai ix35 Fuel Cell||5||SUV||H2V||J||4|
|Tesla Model S||5||Sedan||BEV||F||4|
Eight car models achieved 2 sun classification. These cars include important environmental features allowing their owners to use them with low environmental burdens, but they also include features making such use difficult, in practise. They are listed below in alphabetical order.
|Environmentally Enhanced Car||Seats||Body style||Technology||Segment||Category|
|Audi A3 e-tron||5||Wagon||PHEV||C||2|
|Mercedes-Benz C350e T||5||Wagon||PHEV||D||3|
|Toyota Prius PHEV||5||Hatchback||PHEV||C||2|
|Volkswagen Golf GTE||5||Hatchback||PHEV||C||2|
|Volkswagen Passat GTE||5||Sedan||PHEV||D||3|
|Volkswagen Passat Variant GTE||5||Wagon||PHEV||D||3|
|Volvo V60 PHEV||5||Wagon||PHEV||D||3|
Eight car models achieved 1 sun classification. These cars have been built for purposes that fundamentally contradict environmental objectives. However, they include technology that makes possible to use them with low environmental burdens. Although it is very difficult, their owners do have this option. These cars are listed below in alphabetical order.
|Environmentally Enhanced Car||Seats||Body style||Technology||Segment||Category|
|BMW X5 xDrive40e||5||SUV||PHEV||J||4|
|Mercedes-Benz S500 PHEV||5||Sedan||PHEV||F||4|
|Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV||5||SUV||PHEV||J||4|
|Porsche 918 Spyder||2||Convertible||PHEV||S||4|
|Porsche Cayenne S E-hybrid||5||SUV||PHEV||J||4|
|Porsche Panamera S E-hybrid||4||Coupe||PHEV||F||4|
|Volvo XC90 PHEV||7||SUV||PHEV||J||4|
None of the car models were classified below 1 sun.
Green Car of the Year 2016
Green Car of the Year 2016 in Finland is methane car Volkswagen Caddy Maxi TGI.
Selection was made of 33 car models from 11 car brands and 5 car segments (A, B, C, D and M). Candidates represent 5 different technologies:
|AFV type||Technology||Description||Energy flexibility||Models||Change
|PEV||BEV (electricity)||electric car||Dedicated||6||-4|
|PHEV (electricity/gasoline)||gasoline plug-in-hybrid car||Flexible||10||-6|
|PHEV (electricity/diesel oil)||diesel plug-in-hybrid car||Flexible||1||0|
|H2V||FCEV (GH2)||hydrogen fuel cell car (monofuel)||Dedicated||1||0|
|MGV||Bifuel (CMG/gasoline)||methane car (bifuel)||Flexible||15||-3|
Criteria of participation was stricter than in 2015 as car segments E, F, J and S were no longer included. They are built for purposes that are in conflict with green driving. Also heavy M segment cars were excluded, because they are almost exclusively used in commercial purposes. As a result, the amount of candidates dropped from 46 (2015) to 33 (2016).
Evaluation was simpler than in 2015 as it was based on environmental score only. Each car was classified by 9 environmental properties yielding at most 90 points. VW Caddy Maxi TGI scored 78 points, which gave it first position among the candidates.