By Ari Lampinen, CBG100 Suomi, March 2017
Share of renewable energy of methane consumed by road vehicles in Finland in 1941-2015 is shown by a graph above. From 1941 until 1946 biogas was the only form of methane used in Finland. Utilization of natural gas as a vehicle fuel began in 1996. Biogas came back to the vehicle fuel market in 2002. It started small, having only 0.01 % share in 2002. The share of biogas grew over 0.1 % in 2007, over 1 % in 2010, over 10 % in 2013 and over 50 % in 2015.
Since 1941, when utilization of methane as a vehicle fuel began in Finland, all filling stations have supplied either 100 % renewable methane (CBG, i.e. CBG100) or 100 % fossil methane (CNG and/or LNG). Blends of renewable and fossil methane have not been introduced in the Finnish market. Reactor biogas is the only type of renewable methane available so far. Until 2015 all traffic biogas was produced from waste resources. Natural gas was the only type of fossil methane in vehicle use until 2015. Until 2012 natural gas was always used as CNG. In 2013 LNG was introduced in the Finnish market for road and marine vehicle use. LNG consumed by road vehicles is included in the graph. LBG has never been used in Finland.
Sources of original data used for calculating the values in the graph:
- CBG 1941-1946: Lampinen Ari (2012) Liikennebiokaasun käyttöönotto Suomessa. Finnish Quarterly for the History of Technology 30(1)5-20.
- CNG 1996-2015: Statistics Finland (2017) Energy 2016 table service. Official Statistics of Finland: Energy supply and consumption [e-publication].
- CBG 2002-2010: Lampinen Ari (2011) Liikennebiokaasun käyttö Suomessa 1941-2011. In: Huttunen MJ & Kuittinen V (eds.) Suomen biokaasulaitosrekisteri n:o 14 – Tiedot vuodelta 2010. Publications of the University of Eastern Finland, Reports and Studies in Forestry and Natural Sciences No 5, School of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, 12-13.
- CBG 2011-2013: Lampinen Ari (2014) Liikennebiokaasu Suomessa 1941-2014. In: Huttunen MJ & Kuittinen V (eds.) Suomen biokaasulaitosrekisteri n:o 17 – Tiedot vuodelta 2013. Publications of the University of Eastern Finland, Reports and Studies in Forestry and Natural Sciences No 19, School of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, 12-26.
- CBG 2014: Lampinen Ari (2015) Liikennebiokaasun tuotanto ja käyttö vuonna 2014. In: Huttunen MJ & Kuittinen V (eds.) Suomen biokaasulaitosrekisteri n:o 18 – Tiedot vuodelta 2014. Publications of the University of Eastern Finland, Reports and Studies in Forestry and Natural Sciences No 21, School of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, 12-18.
- CBG 2015: Lampinen Ari (2016) Liikennebiokaasun tuotanto ja käyttö vuonna 2015. In: Huttunen MJ & Kuittinen V (eds.) Suomen biokaasulaitosrekisteri n:o 19 – Tiedot vuodelta 2015. Publications of the University of Eastern Finland, Reports and Studies in Forestry and Natural Sciences No 24, School of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, 12-15.
- LNG 2013-2015: Lampinen Ari (2014-2016/unpublished). LNG consumption data was collected in connection with annual CBG statistics surveys for the years 2013-2015, but this data was not released in the statistics publications (Lampinen 2014-2016).
Notes on the original statistical data:
- Historical CBG statistics 1941-1946: This data was collected from archives of City of Helsinki and published in a peer reviewed journal article in Finnish in 2002 (Lampinen 2012). Main results were later published in English in another peer reviewed journal article: Lampinen Ari (2013) Development of biogas technology systems for transport. Finnish Quarterly for the History of Technology 31(3)5-37.
- Historical CBG statistics 2002-2009: This data was collected from the only CBG filling station operator (Metener/Laukaa) and published in 2011 as a part of the Finnish annual biogas statistics for the year 2010 (Lampinen 2011).
- Annual CBG statistics 2010-2015: This data has been collected annually from biogas filling station operators since 2011 and published as a part of the annual Finnish biogas statistics since 2011, when the year 2010 was covered. Collection and publication of the national biogas statistics was initiated by the Finnish Biogas Association in 1994. They have been published as so called Biogas Plant Registries starting from year 1994 data. Since 2010 the University of Eastern Finland has been in charge of data collection, analysis and publication. In 2011 the Finnish Biogas Association initiated collection of traffic biogas data, which had not been explicitly covered in the Biogas Plant Registries before. Since 2011, when the data from year 2010 was published, traffic biogas has been included in the annual Biogas Plant Registry publications. For the first time traffic biogas was included, historical data before 2010 was also collected and published. In all later Biogas Plant Registries historical data is also included.
- Annual CNG statistics 1996-2015: This data has been collected and published by Statistics Finland as part of Finnish annual official energy statistics. CNG statistics is collected from the natural gas industry. The energy statistics also include CBG statistics, which are collected from the biogas industry, i.e. data in the annual Biogas Plant Registries is used.
- LNG statistics 2013-2015: Statictics of LNG consumption in vehicles is not published in the Finnish annual energy statistics by Statistics Finland. They have been collected within the annual traffic biogas statistics surveys (Biogas Plant Registries), but not published there. Therefore, unpublished original data is used here.
- CBG, CNG and LNG statistics include public and private stationary filling stations as well as private mobile filling stations. But CBG and CNG home filling stations are not included.
- All data means amounts of methane fueled by vehicles in filling stations, i.e. end-use consumption of energy in transport.