By Ari Lampinen, CBG100 Suomi, May 2016
2. updated version, June 2016
Finland is globally the first country for which national RES-T100 statistics have been published. This report is a summary of the original publication, which was written in Finnish.
EV = Electric Vehicle
H2V = Hydrogen Vehicle
MGV = Methane Gas Vehicle
PEV = Plug-in Electric Vehicle
RES = Renewable Energy Source
RES-T = Renewable Energy Source in Transportation
RES-T100 = 100 % Renewable Energy Source in Transportation
RES-T (Renewable Energy Sources in Transportation) statistics are commonly published in various levels both in official and other statistical reports. But these reports do not take into account crude oil independency. Renewable energy is mostly consumed in blends with fossil energy in ordinary monofuel vehicles manufactured for fossil fuels according to gasoline, diesel oil and other fossil fuel standards. Overwhelming majority of the global motorized vehicle stock consists of monofuel gasoline and diesel oil vehicles, which are crude oil dependent, although they may consume renewables in various blends. So called drop-in fuels, i.e. renewable fuels that can be utilized in pure form, are not available for them, because all renewable gasoline and diesel fuels differ chemically and technically from crude oil based gasoline and diesel oil and do not meet their standards. However, drop-in fuels are available for some other vehicles. Vehicles manufactured for upgraded natural gas are the most important example: upgraded biogas and all other types of upgraded renewable methane fuels are drop-in fuels that can be consumed in pure form, without a need to blend them with upgraded natural gas or other types of upgraded fossil methane fuels.
The global goal of crude oil independency requires developing vehicle fleets for ability to consume renewable energy sources in pure form (RES-T100) and developing filling station infrastructure to offer RES-T100. Almost all RES-T100 vehicles are energy flexible, i.e. they have ability to consume several energy sources, including RES and fossil. Some vehicles are automatically RES-T100 compatible without a need to specify it in certification documents. Common examples are:
- RES-E100 (100 % renewable electricity): EVs (electric vehicles) except HEVs (hybrid electric vehicles have electric motors, but electricity is generated onboard by fuels)
- RES-GH2 (100 % renewable hydrogen in compressed gaseous form): H2Vs (hydrogen vehicles) built for compressed hydrogen
- RES-LH2 (100 % renewable hydrogen in liquefied form): H2Vs (hydrogen vehicles) built for liquefied hydrogen
- CBG100 (100 % biogas and other renewable methane fuels in compressed form): MGVs (methane gas vehicles) built for compressed methane fuels
- LBG100 (100 % biogas and other renewable methane fuels in liquefied form): MGVs (methane gas vehicles) built for liquefied methane fuels
- HCBG100 (100 % renewable hythane, i.e. blends of RES-hydrogen and RES-methane): MGVs (methane gas vehicles) built for compressed methane fuels (when H2 content is low), FFVs (flexible fuel vehicles) built for high H2 content
- Bio-DME100 (100 % bio-DME): DME monofuel vehicles
- BE100 (100 % bioethanol in mixtures with water): E100 monofuel vehicles built for hydrous ethanol
For most renewable fuels, the ability for 100 % RES utilization needs to be indicated in vehicle certification documents (or in some rare cases in other documents). This ability is produced either by original manufacturer or by retrofitting entity. Majority of these vehicles are FFVs (flexible fuel vehicles) equipped with otto or diesel engine, but many other technologies exist, too. Common examples are:
- B100 (100 % biodiesel): B100 FFV and multifuel diesel vehicles
- SB100 (100 % synthetic biodiesel): SB100 FFV and multifuel diesel vehicles
- PPO100 (100 % pure plant oil): PPO100 FFV and multifuel diesel vehicles
- BE100 (100 % anhydrous bioethanol): E100 FFV otto vehicles
- BM100 (100 % biomethanol): M100 FFV and multifuel otto vehicles
- WG100 (100 % wood gas): WG100 bifuel otto vehicles
For crude oil independency, both RES-T100 supply and RES-T100 demand need to be developed. In the supply side filling/charging station infrastructure and green electricity and gas markets are the most important factors. In the demand side all types of RES-T100 vehicles and their markets are needed.
In Chapter 2 methodology for RES-T100 statistics is presented for motorized vehicles. In Chapter 3 it is applied for the case of Finland in 2014. Non-motorized RES-T100 transportation is also important, but it is not included in this report.
Most of this report forms an English summary of a report published by CBG100 Suomi in April 2016 in Finnish, but a part of the content is not found in the Finnish publication.
This report is limited to motorized RES-T100, because motorized transportation with its whole lifecycle impacts is a major cause for large amount of the most serious environmental problems, including climate change and air quality, and because it is easy to evaluate. At the moment fossil fuels, especially crude oil and natural gas based fuels, still have dominating role in the transportation energy utilization.
Non-motorized RES-T100 is also important. Examples are muscle power, direct wind power and direct water power. They are not included in any published statistics explicitly, but they are included implicitly via energy conservation as some of the transportation modes, where people are shifting to from fossil energy based motorized transportation. Their quantitative contribution could be estimated, but uncertainties would be large. On the other hand, their share in the current transportation energy consumption is not large. Therefore, they are left for later reports. However, it needs to be noted, that if they were included, some of them would be more important than some of the motorized technologies presented in this report.
2.2. Supply stations
Obviously only 100 % RES supply for vehicles is considered. All kinds of blends and mixtures with non-renewable energy sources are excluded, e.g. mixed electricity, blends of crude oil based and biofuels and mixtures of fossil and renewable methane. Both public and private RES-T100 supply infrastructure is included. They form four categories:
- Public stations: RES-T100 fuel filling stations and RES-E100 charging stations
- Commercial private stations (private stations operated by commercial entities)
- Other private stations (operated by households etc.)
- Wired supply of RES-E100 (e.g. rail vehicles)
RES-T100 vehicles with primary crude oil dependency are excluded. They are vehicles, which are able to utilize RES-T100, but unable to move without crude oil based fuels. Crude oil independency requires ability to move without crude oil based fuels, but it allows vehicles to move also with them, unless they are obligatory. Therefore, excluded are vehicles which always use two energy sources simultaneously and not both of them are RES-T100 energy systems. Examples are dual-fuel vehicles, where ignition is possible by fossil diesel oil only, and plug-in hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel oil monofuel system, which can not move by electricity alone.
RES-T100 vehicles with secondary crude oil dependency are not excluded. They are vehicles, which need crude oil for lubrication, heating, engine start or other auxiliary purposes, but not as an energy source for propulsion.
2.4. Utilization data
Core of the RES-T100 utilization data is collected directly from suppliers and users. Therefore, actual usage forms the basis of the statistics.
Estimated or modelled usage has much higher uncertainties than actual usage, so it is only applied in restricted cases for the purpose of coverage. Some forms of RES-T100 are utilized in very small amounts, but collection of actual usage data for them would be very difficult. Lack of this data should not exclude them from the statistics.
Environmentally weighted usage is included in the statistics. Most important application of it is found in the RES Directive (2009/28/EC) from 2009. The purpose of environmental weighting is to guide consumption of renewable energy towards the ecologically most sustainable options. Therefore, RES-T obligations are measured by environmentally weighted RES-T consumption. Although the purpose of introducing this factor in the original RES Directive is benign, the actual weights are not yet defined in a satisfactory way from the perspective of environmental sciences. Therefore, the EU Commission proposed in 2012 a new set of factors in a document COM(2012)595. These new factors have not yet been approved by the EU Council as an amendment to the directive, but they are utilized in this statistical report.
3. Case Finland 2014
The methodology described in Chapter 2 was applied for the case of Finland in 2014. Main results are shown in the pie diagramme on the cover of this report and in Table 1 below. RES-T100 consumption was quantitatively low, only 1.4 % of total motorized transportation energy consumption in Finland in 2014. But it had very high environmental quality, because clean vehicles (electric, hydrogen and methane vehicles) had 99 % share. These are vehicles for which the clean fuel infrastructure directive (2014/94/EU) requires building filling/charging station infrastructure, because they enable the most ecologically sustainable transportation energy system.
Table 1. Motorized RES-T100 statistics: Finland 2014.
|Actual consumption [GWh]||Consumption [GWh]||Environmental
|Environmentally weighted consumption [GWh]||Share|
|EV trains||645,5||645,5||1||645,5||80,9 %|
|EV metros||47,4||47,4||1||47,4||5,9 %|
|EV trams||29,1||29,1||1||29,1||3,6 %|
|Wood and wood gas vehicles||-||< 4||2||< 8||< 1 %|
|PEVs||-||< 0,05||2,5||< 0,12||< 0,02 %|
|Liquid biofuel vehicles||-||< 0,05||1,5||< 0,07||< 0,01 %|
Actual usage covers 99.9 % of consumption data. Data was collected the following way:
- RES-E100 trains, metros and trams: Annual reports of rail vehicle operators (vehicle types are presented separately, because each of them are quantitatively significant).
- MGVs: National biogas statistics 2014 (biogas vehicles are the only RES-T100 vehicle types for which statistics had already been published).
- H2Vs: Questionnaire for hydrogen filling station and vehicle operator (only one in 2014).
- Wood powered steam locomotives: Questionnaire for steam locomotive operators.
- Wood powered steam ships: Questionnaire for selected steam ship operators.
- PEVs: Questionnaire for public RES-E100 charging station operator (only one in 2014).
Estimated usage covers 0.1 % of consumption data. Estimations were made the following way:
- RES-E100 trains, metros and trams: No needs for estimations.
- MGVs: Consumption of dual-fuel MGVs with monofuel diesel oil system was deducted (marginal).
- Consumption of wood and wood gas vehicles other than wood powered locomotives and ships were estimated based on amount of vehicles.
- PEVs: Actual usage data for PEVs is not available in Finland, but modeled usage data is available. It was used to estimate RES-E100 charging in private stations. Only one public RES-E100 charging station was in operation in 2014.
- Liquid biofuel vehicles: Estimation was based on the amount of RES-T100 vehicles for liquid fuels and the amount of private filling stations for liquid 100 % RES fuels.
As seen in Table 1, rail vehicles had dominating role in RES-T100 utilization (Fig. 1).
Figure 1. RES-E100 rail vehicles.
For road vehicles only 25 public filling/charging stations were in operation in 2014 (Fig. 2), but they represented especially high environmental quality. Of these 24 were CBG100 stations, where 100 % biowaste based biogas was sold. The only public RES-E100 charging station offered wind power based electricity. In addition, private filling stations were in operation for several RES-T100 technologies.
Figure 2. Public RES-T100 station infrastructure in Finland in 2014 consisted of 24 CBG100 filling stations and 1 RES-E100 charging station.